A l'occasion de la journée d ela cosmonautique V Lopota le DG d'Energia a donné une interview dans laquelle il revient sur le spoints chauds de l'activité future de sa société, c'est-à-dire pour une bonne part, de la Russie: Nouveau vaisseau, nouvelles fusées, construction des soyouz et progress, Sea-Launch...
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Vitaly Lopota: "The Corporation" Energy "is always given importance to the development of advanced space systems."
Russia and the U.S. agreed to extend the operation of the ISS by 2020. Given that the biography of the American shuttle flight is completed, the main load to deliver crews to the station will fall on the Russian Soyuz spacecraft. I'll manage Russia with such a task? Will there be enough resources to develop their own space programs, including a ship of a new generation? These and other issues, "Interfax-AVN on the eve of the Day Space told the president, chief designer of Rocket and Space Corporation Energia Vital Lopota.
- Vitaly, at what stage is the schematic design of a new spacecraft, on which now operates RSC Energia?
- Schematic design perspective of the transport ship began in the middle of last year and be completed as planned, in the middle of this. Frankly, nobody in the world in such "short" time such sophisticated technology is designed. First, researchers are put to task to be performed by ship, issued specification for the draft, and only then being designed. But we are flying into space is not the first year, have a great experience, so a number of works can accelerate. In addition, the corporation "Energy" is always given importance to the development of advanced space systems, the use of new materials, including on its own initiative, at their own expense.
Schematic design vehicle associated with the implementation of the extensive research on the choice of rational decisions, which should take into account the perspectives of operation for 30-40 years. Naturally, with phased evolutionary modernization as a result of new elements, materials and development of appropriate technologies. Just as happened with the Soyuz spacecraft.
- What is the new spacecraft?
- The ship, unlike the same shuttle, built on the wingless scheme. It will consist of a single instrument-equipment compartment and multiple re-entry vehicle. Form of the recovery vehicle - a truncated cone. The ship is designed to fly into low Earth orbit and is designed for crew size to six people, while transporting a payload mass of 500 kg. But the possible and the flight of two astronauts with a corresponding increase in weight loads up to 1000 kg. According to technical specifications, the ship must provide sufficiently fast (within 1-2 days after launch) the approach and docking with the space station or the forwarding system intended to fly to other planets. The ship will be able to perform lengthy and autonomous flight in low Earth orbit.
- Who will review draft design of the new ship, and what steps will be followed by work on next?
- In the existing state of RSC Energia, will present the draft design of the customer - Roskosmos. Examination of the project will be undertaken by the lead research organization reports.
As the result, as is traditional for complicated designs, will make recommendations on the project, refined the requirements for the ship.
The next step should be a technical design, and after that - working. Immediately proceed to the detailed design, as is sometimes done, in this case, apparently not. As they say, should be second thoughts. However, further development of the project will be determined by funding.
Flight tests of the spacecraft in an unmanned mode to begin in 2015, and with the astronauts on board - in 2018. Terms of reasonable, but I stress once again, the question of timing of a ship depends entirely on funding. You have to understand that in parallel are fundamentally new technologies, new materials, and Super-superkrepkie alloys. The new spacecraft will use modern materials and technologies, including those that have just emerged. Therefore require an appropriate amount of experimental work. And with all the necessary funds.
- How will the return capsule to land a new ship: the parachutes or with rocket engines?
- Talking about the way forward for the landing transport vehicle must begin with the fact that the landing is provided on the territory of Russia - this is Siberia and the Far East. But as we know, there taiga. It's not Kazakhstan, with almost flat steppe. In this regard, we tasked to ensure the accuracy of landing in the circle radius of 10 km. We took on the more ambitious task - to ensure the accuracy of landing in a radius of 2 km. For these reasons, we renounced the use of plantation used in the Soyuz spacecraft. It is such accuracy can not give. We work out several options for the technical solution of highly reliable precision landing.
- The new vehicle will be reusable?
- Descent to Earth will only return capsule. We hope that it will be used at least 10 times. Thermal protection apparatus will have a replacement. We believe that this decision will allow to reach for her highest reliability.
- What are the boosters will display the ship in orbit?
- The ship, we have a mass of about 12.5 tons. Missiles to launch in Russia, except for "Zenith", no. We now Samara TsSKB-Progress and the South Urals missile sites the Makeyev are developing rocket Rus-M, capable orbit loads of up to 20 tons. By the way, our ship turned out almost twice as light 27-ton American "Orion", set up under the "Constellation", from which the U.S. decided to abandon.
In addition, the "Energy" proposes to create two entirely new rocket - on 20 and 60 tons of payload, including the new ship. These missiles will use environmentally friendly propellants, resemble rocket Zenit, but, in contrast, can in case of emergency leave from the start, not destroying it.
- Tell us about the introduction of new technologies in the production of ships
- This work is carried out systematically. Recently, for example, the company introduced new equipment, which allows to increase the number of ships built from four year to five. Thus, in 2013 Russia will be able to run five of the Soyuz in a year. In June and July this year to start working out this equipment. Limiting for us to have dates of manufacture of the docking units and heat shield. Question with nodes, we decided. The second question we hope to resolve with the commissioning of a new autoclave. Thus, the time of manufacture of individual units, and the vessel as a whole will shrink.
For example, we have reduced the time of manufacturing the body of the docking unit ships with 10.5 months to a month. There were more than 50 technology transitions, and it is now 2-3. This revolutionary change.
- Run the "Union" with a digital control system, as before, is scheduled for autumn this year?
- While, yes, but if we find some remarks on its systems or ship as a whole, instead of it going next in order of the machine. Pilot the ship will be one of the most experienced cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri, behind which have four space flights. Helping him will be Oleg Skripochka. Both - representatives cosmonaut RSC Energia.
- We considered plans to launch to the ISS in 2011, the ship-toplivozapraschika - cargo ship "Progress" with additional fuel tanks? They are saved?
- We have decided not to build this ship, given the less solar activity than predicted and, consequently, lower speed to reduce the ISS. In addition, the ISS will fly European "trucks" ATV and Japanese HTV. Need for additional fuel delivery into orbit has not yet foreseen. Of course, if such a need arises, we quickly modify the usual "Progress" under the delivery of large amounts of fuel.
- RKK Energia plans to further develop unmanned theme?
- We do not intend to leave this promising market. Orders for the development of satellites for a number of foreign countries proof. Relevant contracts in preparation for signing, in principle, the basic questions about it matched. The satellites will be established on a universal space platform, created by RSC Energia. The platform has a flight certification up to 15 years depending on the intended use.
- Company Sea Launch, which is a shareholder of RSC Energia, will continue to work?
- At 90% sure that will continue, but the company needs $ 150-200 million to get out of the debt pit. Now we have found an investor willing to revive the project. I recall last year the company Sea Launch announced a voluntary bankruptcy. Six months ago, formed a plan of restructuring, the implementation of which, for various reasons, constantly deferred. Recently, RSC Energia announced the parent organization of the project, replacing the Boeing Company. Hopefully, now the situation budge.
If we talk about the draft is self-sufficient, we believe that it can be achieved by ensuring a regular four to five launches per year. But only if the new management team will focus on business development. Overall, in our opinion, if an efficient organization, we can expect 8-10 runs per year. To do this, however, deliver the missiles to launch this point is not on a platform of "Odyssey", and a special transport ship, on the road carrying their assembly and test. Samuel platform should be placed off the coast of some uninhabited island near the equator, because the seas can not hold overload rockets from one vessel to another.
- When you believe, possible to organize a manned flight to Mars?
- Based on the available space industry technologies, using nuclear power plants, which should appear in the next decade, such a flight could be arranged in 20-30-ies of our century. To prepare and organize the flight by this time should be adequate funding - about $ 1 billion a year.
I am deeply convinced that Russia has such a project for economic reasons alone can not pull, just like any other country, including the United States. Therefore, a flight to Mars will be an international project, similar to the International Space Station.http://www.roscosmos.ru/main.php?id=2&nid=9991