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Age : 61
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Date d'inscription : 19/04/2007
|Sujet: Une interview de Popovkin Lun 9 Jan 2012 - 19:06|| |
Popovkin a donné une interview aux Ivestia.
Impossible d'en donner une traduction complète en français ici.
Il ressort quand même quelques points qui m'ont intéressés:
1. la présence permanente des cosmonautes dans les stations n'est pas obligatoire. La Russie pense s'orienter vers des vols en fonction des besoins de recherche
2. Le PTS sera s'en doute créé mais jusqu'en 2020 le soyouz fait très bien l'affaire. Le tourisme spatial n'est pas un but. Si les gens payent préparation, lancement, récupération, approvisionnement alors il peut y avoir des touristes mais pas au détriment du programme spatial
3. Le PTS devrait pouvoir être lancé, selon sa configuration et sa mission par Soyouz ou Angara
4. Ils ont proposé aux Kazakhs d'utiliser le prix du loyer de Baïkonour pour construire Baiterek
5. Pour Vostochny ils disposent de 173 milliards de roubles jusqu'en 2015.
6. L'intégration dans le milieu spatial qui était jusque là pensée "en vertical" va se faire plutôt "en horizontal"
7. Les échecs de lancements: une structure indépendante de contrôle qualité va être créée.
8. Pour Phobos-grunt, il n'accuse personne mais constate que plusieurs problèmes sont intervenus hors de visibilité radio ce qui est dommageable: en 2013 les 3 Luch mettront fin à ce problème récurrent.
- Citation :
- January 9, 2012, nine o'clock | Science | Ivan Cheberko 5
We have to determine the feasibility of manned missions
Head of Federal Space Agency Vladimir Popovkin in an exclusive interview with "Izvestia" talked about the main directions of the Russian Space Agency in the coming year
We have to determine the feasibility of manned missions
Head of Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) Vladimir Popovkin. Photo: RIA Novosti / Artem Zhitenev
- Vladimir, today the main transport to the ISS for both us and the Americans - "Soyuz TMA", which is called outdated, uncomfortable for the astronauts and untimely. At MAKS concept was presented to the new six-ship. In what terms it can be created and what medium will be used for its removal?
- I would not so categorically assess existing spacecraft. Despite the long period of operation, it performs its tasks reliably and was a quality upgrade. The new manned spacecraft, developed by now Rocket and Space Corporation "Energia", to appear in Russia at the turn of 2018-2020 years. We plan to make it uniform. In fact, it will go down six-capsule, in which, depending on the tasks to be instrument-assembly compartment with the engine and various household compartments.
Launch vehicle for such a ship, apparently, should be chosen depending on the specific mission. For example, the "Soyuz-2" is able to display only the capsule with a small engine. In the case of large volume and weight mean it can be "Angara" up to "Angara" heavy class. Do not forget that we still have a launch vehicle "Zenit". We have a new manned spacecraft will be in 2020, the Americans may have had - Orion by Lockheed Martin and from Dragon SpaseX already exist in the form of flight models.
- As far as Russia's critical gap in the race?
- Today it is necessary to realize the goal of a truly new ships and to understand where they fly. Again to the station around the Earth? Existing means we ensure the delivery of crew and cargo. At another point in space? In this case, you need to start doing a new delivery system with improved characteristics.
Today we have agreed to the ISS until 2020 and assess the feasibility of its use until 2028. On missions to the ISS "Soyuz TMA" copes perfectly. More reliable and, importantly, low-cost means of delivering astronauts to the ISS in the current economic conditions in the world does not exist. They're just a form reminiscent of the old "Union", and other content: digital control system, another rendezvous and docking system, the upgraded propulsion system.
In addition, we intend to facilitate the determination of a person in a small space ship. We want next year to study the possibility of delivery of the crew to the station not in two days and a night. And representatives of NASA officially announced that they are thinking about buying a place on our "Union", traveling to the ISS, for the period after 2016 (up to 2016 inclusive, all free space on the "Union" already sold out NASA. - «News").
- That is, until the new ships to us to what?
- We discuss with our European partners long-term manned space station. Europeans would be interested to stay in near space, but not with the multi-purpose space station, and making a number of small orbital stations targeting: that one was no noise in the other - perfect cleanliness observed. Each for a certain kind of research. "Union" and is suitable for this purpose.
Along with this we will soon have to decide on the usefulness of manned missions. Permanent human presence in space is not always justified. And the constant presence of the expedition, we should move on to visiting. Here we have identified a set of experiments, for example, to simulate certain key decisions for future vehicles, sent a crew that worked for everything you need and come back with results. A new set of equipment and the need of obtaining data - run again. We will practice this approach.
- If the "Union" is so in demand, and reliable, if there is reason to make them more?
- Today, the optimum number of members of the ISS crew - six astronauts. Of this number, and proceed with the planning and production of "union".
- A space tourists?
Space tourism - a private business, which today is Roskosmos neutral. We will not sell to tourists place on the ship. Those interested in this opportunity, we say: "In theory, make an additional" Union "for tourists can be. But it is one of three places on the ship it is mandatory to provide the commander, who will be responsible for safe delivery to the station. In addition the ship will have to pay for rocket launchers full range of services, provision of on-orbit, all search and rescue operations during the descent. " So we all believe, call and offer to pay the amount. If you want - please, pay, we will do. But at a loss for the space program, we certainly will not work.
- Why so long to solve the problem with the release of money for the spaceport , " East "?
- He is decided. To date, the draft federal target program for the Russian space center in part of the "East" is in the government. We have finally completed the agreement with the Ministry of Finance and Economic Development, and the document went to the government.
- What are the parameters of the program approved by the ministries?
- 81 billion rubles in 2015 to create the infrastructure providing the space center. All the space technology funded under the federal space program - for these purposes 92 billion rubles. Thus, the "East" through 2015, we have 173 billion rubles.
- If Russia begins to finance its launch site, it will develop a "Baikonur"?
- Will. Now we are partners in Kazakhstan are working to identify the modalities of financing the project "Baiterek." This is a launch pad for the "Angara" and build its planned due to the Kazakh side. We announced price - $ 1.6 billion with all the infrastructure. We create "Baiterek" profitable. The more launches will carry Kazakhstan, the more we will be able to sell missiles. In addition, "Baiterek" - another option for our manned space launches.
- The project "Baiterek" has long existed, but the question of the financing of Kazakhstan to solve and can not. Are there any sense to offer to build a "Baiterek" on the money that Russia pays for the lease of "Baikonur" - $ 115 million a year?
- At a meeting with Kazakh Prime Minister Karim Masimov I presented just such an option. Asked them to monitor every penny of that money and send them to the construction of "Baiterek." The Kazakh side has our proposals in elaboration.
- How to change the shape of space-rocket industry in connection with the creation of holding companies? The reform, initiated by the previous Administration Russian Space Agency, with your arrival has been frozen, scripts associations reconsidered. What will happen next?
- Option of reorganization proposed by the former leadership of Russian Space Agency, intended to create a vertically-integrated structures. For example, the Khrunichev Center makes "Protons" and its holding together all the companies tied to their release. And at the first stage such a scheme seemed justified. Least because many companies within the industry, becoming independent, losing all sense of proportion in the conduct of pricing policy.
On the other hand, the way of "picking under a" do not always correspond to the cooperation that existed. Much has been biased. Today in Roskosmos have a plan to create structures that are integrated by horizontal lines. For more information about it can be told in the beginning of next year, when all details are clear completely. In the meantime, you can say about 5.4 large holdings. For example, in one of them can enter the same "Khrunichev" TsSKB and "Progress". It will be a powerful holding on boosters.
- Holding on engine development plan?
- And consider such a structure, but is not yet defined configuration. It can be intra-, and then it will include "KB Himavtomatiki", NGO "Energomash", Voronezh Mechanical Plant and Keldysh Research Center. But the majority of enterprises in the motor category is already in the United Engine Building Corporation, a subsidiary of "Oboronprom." Perhaps it makes sense to consider the option of including the holding and more business. In general, the approaches to the formation of holding companies, we decided, it remains utryasti details.
- These holdings will be traded companies?
- We think about it, are engaged in consultations with the Federal Property Management Agency and the Ministry of Economic Development. In my opinion, today it must be public entities. As will be lined up processes, their economy, possibly their subsequent sale of shares. If you make 100% sale of shares and leave the state, it will be a Federal State Unitary Enterprise, which is simply called a public company. Director of the company gets more rights, he, in fact, it is not controlled Roscosmos, moving under the jurisdiction of the Federal Property Agency.
- This year Russia has been four accidents at start-up, which resulted in much talk about the lack of quality control products. What did the Federal Space Agency, to reverse the decrease in reliability of missile technology?
- Firstly, we at times have increased the list of transactions subject to triple control, including the objective, through photography and video. Second, set up task forces, which are now before each run, see the documentation for the production, just look for deviations from the process. And it turns out sometimes interesting things there a little retreated, here a little bit not dokrutili. Significant deviations are found, which the designer of the complex is not evaluated. As a result, some of the launches were postponed to a later date.
Third, taking into account that a number of contingencies - links in a chain of errors in the calculations a flight mission, we are next year stands to simulate the flight tasks duplicate. And we put in TsNIImash exactly the same stands as the enterprises to experts from the institute not only controlled the flight assignments only on reports that they send, but also tested on the bench.
Fourth, create a departmental quality control system, which provides for including the work of the representative of Russian Space Agency to monitor the manufacturing process of rocket and space technology at each plant. It will not replace any military acceptance, or OTC. But he will have powers to intervene in any production process. In addition, when TsNIImash created task force of competent and reputable scientists and technologists. Approved by me they are scheduled to go on the enterprises, where will be obliged to answer any of their issue. In this group we attract both specialists from military representatives in enterprises that know what the control system and the most experienced professionals, including those who are now retired.
Finally, we prepare a proposal for the removal of the entire bench base with businesses into one organization. To all the tests were conducted by an independent organization, thereby ensuring the objectivity of the process and outcome. For example, we have a testing center space industry, based on which you can do it effectively.
- But not all things can be brought to perfection - the same "Phobos-Grunt" run, knowing that the probability of successful mission - percent 50 ...
- "Phobos-Grunt" was designed and created in a limited amount of funds that determined risk solutions and caused the problematic mission as a whole. We have become hostage to these decisions, because they were already bound by the European Space Agency, whose instruments were there, and with Chinese counterparts, whose companion, we undertook to deliver to Mars along with "Phobos." Additionally, the unit was created for a long time, warranty and maintenance period of many nodes to a close. And if we do not have time to run it in a "window" in 2011 for a flight to Mars, we would just throw it, writing off a loss 5 billion invested in his rubles.
- That is the risk of the mission "Phobos" was understandable, but had nowhere to go?
- No other way did not exist. Today there is no clarity as to why not start the propulsion system "Phobos-Grunt." It is also unclear frequent failures of our vehicles in the period when they fly over Russia's shadow side of the earth - where we do not see the device and do not take it with telemetry. I do not want to accuse anyone, but today there is a very powerful impact on the spacecraft, possible applications that can not be ruled out.
- And how is it possible profilaktirovat?
- In 2013, we will be fully established system relay - three moons' ray-5 ", one of which has already started in December last year. They will give us visibility in real time. We will know exactly what and at what point there.
Dernière édition par patchfree le Lun 9 Jan 2012 - 23:13, édité 1 fois
Nombre de messages : 13865
Age : 66
Localisation : région lyonnaise
Date d'inscription : 01/10/2005
|Sujet: Re: Une interview de Popovkin Lun 9 Jan 2012 - 20:49|| |
- Citation :
- Launch vehicle for such a ship, apparently, should be chosen depending on the specific mission. For example, the "Soyuz-2" is able to display only the capsule with a small engine. In the case of large volume and weight mean it can be "Angara" up to "Angara" heavy class
L'hypothèse d'une possibilité d'utiliser deux lanceurs différents pour la nouvelle capsule PTS se trouverait donc confirmée. Avec la conséquence probable que le pas de tir Soyuz-2 (que nous appelons Soyouz 2-3v) prévu à Vostochny prendrait cela en compte.
Cela confirmerait aussi que le système actuel sera encore utilisé longtemps puisque seule l'orbite LEO et la desserte de l'ISS sont au programme.
- Citation :
- Today we have agreed to the ISS until 2020 and assess the feasibility of its use until 2028. On missions to the ISS "Soyuz TMA" copes perfectly. More reliable and, importantly, low-cost means of delivering astronauts to the ISS in the current economic conditions in the world does not exist
Cela octroie un temps de développement et de mise au point de la capsule PTS et de ses nouveaux lanceurs large et géré sans pression.
Pour le fret aussi il est rarppelé que rien n'est urgent, la Zenit est opérationnelle.
Ce n'est que pour de nouveaux objectifs (en visant au-delà du LEO) que les nouveaux engins seront indispensables. Et rien ne parait décidé dans ce domaine (voir le FIL sur le roadmap en discussion)