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|Sujet: Petit bilan statistique de l'ère spatiale Ven 5 Oct 2012 - 19:32|| |
Pour ceux que les chiffres intéressent NK a publié un petit article d'Alexander Zheleznyakov sur différents décomptes de lancements et autres depuis 55 ans c'est-à-dire depuis le premier satellite artificiel de la Terre. Trop long à traduire mais sachez tout de même qu'il y a eu en 55 ans 5245 tentatives de lancements dont 359 ont connu un échec au lancement. Sur les 4886 lancements réussis (du moins lors desquels la charge a atteint l'espace) tous n'ont pas lancé des engins fonctionnels au final...
Et ne croyez pas que ce soit Baïkonour qui ait connu le plus de lancements! C'est Plesetsk avec 1592 contre 1395 pour Baïkonour.
- Citation :
10.04.2012 / 8:35 Some statistical results of 55 years of the space age
Since the beginning of the space era has passed exactly 55 years. Considerable period in which mankind can pretty substantial progress on the "path to the stars." Made a lot. But more needs to be done.
About the future some other time. So far, about the past, and, in numbers.
In the period from October 4, 1957 to October 3, 2012 in the world were made 5245 attempts to launch satellites [hereinafter calculations by the author, which do not always coincide with those of other space statisticians]. Of this number, 359 were accidental starts.
The international registry appear successful 4886 launch. However, it should be noted that not all loads after taking them into space is workable. Many spacecraft turned into an unplanned orbit or out of order, and not having time to begin implementation of their tasks.
In addition, four of the launch vehicle (three - in the USSR, one - in Brazil) exploded on the launch complex in prelaunch before issuing the command "Start".
Number of running vehicles grew from year to year in the first two decades of the space age (from three in 1957 to 133 in 1975). In the next decade, reaching a "peak" space powers retained their "activity" at that level. After that, a gradual decrease in the number of starts.
The reason for this, first of all, was the end of the "cold war" and the collapse of the USSR and the USA many military programs. In addition, some areas started commercialization of space activities. In the past three years, the intensity of space launches stabilized around 80 launches per year (2009 - 78 starts, in 2010 - 74 starters, 2011 - 84 starts).
Attempts were made rocket launch by 12 countries (USSR / Russia, USA, France, China, Japan, Britain, India, Israel, Brazil, North Korea, Iran and South Korea), as well as three international associations (consortia "Arianespace" and "Sea Launch" and the European Space Research Organization). For nine countries and two international organizations, these attempts were unsuccessful, and they entered the so-called "Space club", and three countries (Brazil, North and South Korea) have not yet been able to realize its space ambitions. Also in the 1960-1970-ies are not able to succeed and organization ELDO, later transformed into the European Space Agency.
In the near future a number of space powers could get South Korea. But the other "contenders" on the cosmic horizon is not visible.
But actively to space orbits out by private companies. Significant progress in recent years, the company has achieved "Space X" already operating space vehicles "Falcon 1" and "Falcon 9" and created the spacecraft "Dragon", who in 2012 its first flight to the International Space Station. In the near future to take place the first commercial flight of "Dragon."
In the footsteps of "Space-X", "go" and other American companies that NASA is going to "give" manned space exploration in low Earth orbit. In the foreseeable future, have to go into orbit cargo ship, created by "Sainz Orbital Corporation."
Of "successful" space powers most launches space carriers account for our country - 3105 runs, including the 2931 successful or partially successful. In second place the U.S. - 1552 and 1423 launch, respectively. Third place still occupies a European consortium "Arianespace", on account of which 203 successful launches, including a two-run Russian rocket "Soyuz-ST" with South American spaceport in Kourou. However, in the next couple of years (maybe even 2013) Europeans' winning place "will shift the Chinese who have made impressive strides in space exploration.
Other participants of the "cosmic event" behind seriously.
In all successful and partially successful launches rocket into Earth orbit was removed about 6700 satellites belonging to more than 60 countries around the world. This discrepancy between the number of "space powers" and the number of "owners" of the satellite due to the fact that a large number of vehicles were put into orbit by members of "space club" in the interests of other customers on a commercial basis.
As in the case of the missile tests, the vast majority are running satellites belong to the USSR / Russia and the United States (over 85%). And given that many of the spacecraft to Spain, Brazil, Malaysia, Indonesia, Belarus and many other countries are also manufactured by the Soviet (Russian) and American specialists, we can talk about the dominant role of the two great powers in the cosmic space activities of mankind. Even China, with its rapid take-off space in the total number of satellites launched so far is more than modest place.
Most of all space launches took place from the Russian cosmodrome "Plesetsk" in the Arkhangelsk region - 1592. In second place cosmodrome "Baikonur" - 1395. Followed by the U.S. launch sites at Cape Canaveral (East test site) and on the basis of the U.S. Air Force, "Vandenberg" (West test site). Other launch sites have in their "assets" more modest "indicators".
Finally, I should note that in summing up the statistical results of five decades of space.
By type of start the vast majority of start-RN (5155 start-up, 98.3%) was satisfied with the ground launch facilities. Only 44 starts (0.83%) was produced from the water surface (launch platform "San Marco" and "Odyssey", as well as aboard the Russian submarine K-407 "Novomoskovsk") and 46 (0.87%) - with board an aircraft carrier, taking off from the territory of the U.S. sites and military bases Canaveral, Vandenberg, China Lake, Kvadzhleyn and from the international airport in the Canary Islands.
Here is a brief, well, very briefly, the statistics of the space age.
- Alexander Zheleznyakov.