Bonjour, voilà la réponse à la question suivante:
- Quelle a été la première mission Apollo à rapporter systématiquement des échantillons (urine et fécal) de son équipage sur Terre??
(question à contreverse)
donc j'attendais de votre part la réponse suivante:
A partir du vol Apollo XVI, il y a eu collecte systématique d'échantillon d'urine. Par contre toute l'urine n'a pas été rapportée. Elle était mesurée ( volume ). et dans certains cas, cela n'a pas non plus été possible ( pendant les EVA ). Les échantillons de matières fécales étaient deja rapportées auparavant et ont continués à l'être jusqu'à Apollo XVII.
Analysis of blood obtained postflight on early Apollo missions, together with certain endocrinological and electrocardiographic changes in Apollo 15, made it desirable to measure urine volume and bring back samples of urine on Apollo 16. During this mission, it was also possible to continue to return fecal samples and to continue to measure nutrient intake. Sufficient data were therefore available to conduct a partial metabolic study.
 For a more detailed metabolic balance study in conjunction with Apollo 17, accurate measurements of fluid intake and output were performed approximately two months before the mission. A five-day food compatibility/metabolic study was performed in which the three Apollo 17 prime and backup crewmembers consumed their flight foods, and metabolic collections were performed. The study was designed to obtain baseline data on the excretory levels of electrolytes and nitrogen in response to the Apollo 17 flight menus. The crewmembers consumed the flight menu foods for five complete days. During the last three days of this test, complete urine and fecal collections were made.
Beginning 64 hours before Apollo 17 lift-off and continuing throughout the mission until 44 hours following recovery, all food and fluid intake was measured. For the Lunar Module Pilot, these collections continued until suit donning; for the Commander and the Command Module Pilot, collection continued until approximately 12 hours before lift-off. All urine was collected, measured, sampled, and returned for analysis. Urine was collected before and after flight in 12-hour pools. Complete stool collections were performed.
All deviations from programmed food intake were logged and reported. All foods were consumed according to preset menus arranged in four-day cycles. Every food item used during the flight was derived from a lot of food that had been analyzed for the constituents to be measured. Inflight water consumption was measured by use of the Skylab beverage dispenser. During the preflight and postflight periods, conventional meals were prepared in duplicate for each astronaut. One duplicate of each meal was analyzed in addition to the residue from the other duplicates to measure intake and output.
Apollo 17 inflight urine samples were collected by means of a biomedical urine sampling system (BUSS). Each BUSS consisted of a large pooling bag, which could accommodate as much as four liters of urine collected during a day, and a sampling bag, which could accommodate as much as 120 cc. The BUSS was charged with 30 mg of lithium chloride. The lithium chloride concentration in the sample bag was used as a means of determining total urine volume. Each BUSS also contained boric acid to effect stabilization of certain organic constituents.
The inflight urine collection periods began with suit doffing at approximately 00:07:00 ground elapsed time (GET). The collection periods were the times between scheduled effluent dumps and were approximately 24 hours each. During undocked flight of the Command Module, urine was collected only from the Command Module Pilot. During periods in which the crewmen were suited, urine was collected in the urine collection and transfer assembly and subsequently dumped overboard without sampling. However, urine collected in the Commander and Command Module Pilot assemblies during the Command Module extravehicular activities (255:00:00 to 260:00:00 GET) was also returned. For the Apollo 17 mission, the periods during which urine was not collected are as follows:
1. Commander and Command Module Pilot-lift-off to suit doffing (00:00:00 to 00:07:00 GET)
2. Command Module Pilot - Lunar Module activation and lunar descent (108:00:00 to 114:30:00GET)
3. Command Module Pilot-rendezvous (187:00:00 to 195:00:00 GET)
 4. Commander and Lunar Module Pilot-Lunar Module activation, lunar descent, lunar surface operations and rendezvous (107:00:00 to 208:00:00 GET)
Urine collected from the Commander and the Command Module Pilot from rendezvous to the beginning of the first collection period after rendezvous (approximately 197:00:00 to 208:00:00 GET) was also dumped directly overboard.
Each BUSS was marked with the name of the crewmember and the ground elapsed time of collection. Following each collection period, the urine pool was thoroughly mixed before a sample was taken. The urine samples represented a 24-hour void and were subsequently analyzed for electrolytes, nitrogen, and creatine.
All fecal samples collected from each crewmember for the following periods were returned: beginning 64 hours before lift-off, during the mission, and for 44 hours after the flight. Inflight fecal samples were chemically preserved for storage in the spacecraft.Classement pour cette question
dominique M, 3 pts.
mic 8, 2 pts.
.. et c'est tout
Néanmoins un grand bravo à tout les deux CLASSEMENT GENERAL
1) mic8, 21 pts.
2) yoann, 13 pts.
3) dominique M, 11 pts.
4) docstein76, Fabien avec 10 pts.
5) amine avec 8 pts.
6) Fabs avec 7 pts.
7) Mustard et Steph avec 6 pts.
8) Pim avec 4 pts.
9) Astrogreg, astroman, seb2705, maxime avec 3 pts.
dans le peloton nous avons Yantar, Cosmos the spaceman et Agnès avec 2 pts.
Et finalement ceux qui ferment la course: Luckyfox, Skylab, Aragatz et avec 1 pt.
à dans 5 min pour la(les) prochaine(s) question(s)