Un texte fondateur de V Lopota sur les défis de l'espace russe et international. A mettre en relation avec les infos de ZAK sur le vaisseau russo-européen.
[site roscosmos, traduction automatique]
Can any loud declared programme, called to the development Moon, Mars
missions, but the actual movement towards their implementation can be
assessed on specific development and funding is directed to achieving
the goals. General trends in the world manned space aimed at addressing
challenges of XXI century, confined primarily to determining the shape
of the spacecraft and the universal choice of a number of launchers on
the basis of a single modular design. This will allow select optimal
parts orbital complexes and to form a universal technology for their
assembly on the mounting orbit.
In the main space powers
defined their national programmes. In the United States are working
under the programme on a lunar orbiter (developer firm Lockheed "), the
lunar landing module and advanced carrier rockets. They are based on
design and engineering solutions, proven in the implementation of the
"Saturn" - "Apollo" and proven high reliability in its implementation.
An orbital plane (the developer - firm Boeing, projects H-40 and H-37).
China has been accumulating experience manned spacecraft, on
the Construction of a similar Soyuz, working on options for the
aircraft and orbital station.
European and Japanese space agencies spend automatic system ships to ISS and interorbit transportation.
In India, a study published directions Moon using unmanned spacecraft and sketches kosmoplana.
At the NASA space program spends at 12-13 times more than Russia. China
allocates for this purpose nearly three times more money than we are.
This once again underlines that the world is no longer the
industrialised countries, which would be seen in space means only
unconditional element of national security. The desire to get into the
same club of space powers are primarily linked with the need to gain
access to areas of human activity, which is a stimulant development of
innovative technologies that determine the pace of development of a
That is what makes deeply and comprehensively
analyze all the experience and choose the vector of development of
Russian manned space, and hence determine the borders, which should go
on national science and technology. At this stage it is very important,
what requirements will be presented to prospective space facilities.
Our great predecessors have been able to do this, and we have more than
40 years created by exploiting their manned spacecraft. The correctness
of the chosen design principles and design decisions affirmed life. The
Russian manned ships until solve all the tasks assigned to them, but on
board the Soyuz, we can return from space, only 100-150 kg (the results
of experiments). The world space market, new requirements, the
possibility of variation in the number of delivery (of recovery) crew
and the payload mass seemed to be relevant today.
foreseeable future, undoubtedly will change the range of tasks that
will fall on future manned space funds. At the initial stage of
creating a new manned space ship has been and remains the main
requirements to ensure the safety of the crew and high reliability
implementation of the mission. These include the placement of funds to
ensure the safety of the crew on the launch, on the breeding and in the
process of implementing the programme of flight. But this is only one
of the problems in the task, which is always key.
system requirements are as follows. It is necessary to take off and
land on the territory of Russia. When starting from the cosmodrome
"East" landing ship on land can be carried out in four very limited in
size areas. However reconnaissance work can make their adjustments to
reduce them in connection with the construction of new high-voltage
power lines and other industrial facilities. In doing so, landing in
these areas is only possible with one or two turns. That restriction,
of course, is quite significant and fully investigated when selecting
the project appearance and characteristics of the new ship.
When considering the safety crew to the station withdrawal must also
take into account that the route passes over the Pacific Ocean. In this
case rescue crews problem can be solved either location 4-5 groups of
special marine vessels in the water area of the ocean, or expansion
opportunities spacecraft on longitudinal (not less than 6000 km) and
lateral (from 500 to 1000 km) manoeuvres. If you raise the possibility
of manned spacecraft on the longitudinal and lateral manoeuvres to some
extent solve the problem and rescue the crew on track breeding, and the
problem urgently return the crew from landing at the adjacent 9-10
turns (from 16 per diem) in the three areas of the territory of Russia
in the event of unexpected the situation in Earth orbit.
this is only part of the issues that lead to consider several options
for the future appearance of the project manned space shuttle to select
the best option not only meets the requirements to ensure the safety of
the crew, but also meets the objectives of its characteristics, it
would have to be resolved. Hard engineering compromises search
continues, and, of course, they must be found.
preferable option ship can certainly become a spacecraft bearing the
hull with either one of its modifications to implement the necessary
longitudinal and lateral maneuver. We have also discussed possible
options and evaluating the readiness of technology to create them using
a parachute or aircraft landing scheme. The final choice will be made
after the adoption of political and financial decisions on
implementation of the programme and resource allocation for the
construction of necessary infrastructure support. All this will
significantly influence the determination of the final project design
and appearance of the ship.
And finally, the new cosmodrome.
Creating cosmodrome Russia must provide independent access to space and
the possibility of effective use of domestic stock funds breeding
delivering into the working orbit the entire spectrum of space
resources needed to meet the challenges of national security,
scientific and socio-economic development.
As part of the
funding agreement between the breeding there parent organizations (RSC
Energia. SP. Korolev, GKNPTS them. M.V, Hrunichsva and GNPRKTS
"TSSKB-Progress") on the need to identify alternative space rocket
appointment, which must be absorbed whole the best experience of our
organizations and the most effective use of existing industrial and
technological capacity. The tasks that we put President of the Russian
Federation: to start in 2015 with a cargo ship, while in 2018 to begin
operation of a new manned spacecraft - we certainly will comply with
the allocation of necessary resources.
As for the development
of deep space involving human subjects, the main goal of manned
programs in the Exploration and Development of the Moon, Mars and other
objects in outer space - this generation of knowledge. Here we must
clearly articulate that do, as in what time frame. That is why the
programme should be merged and formed good, profound ideas, should be
The implementation of such programmes is extremely
expensive and, in principle, for one country virtually nepodemna.
Create a universal manned spacecraft capable to solve all problems
(start from the ground, landing on the moon and return with it to Earth
from the second space speed), at the present level of development of
science and technology has not yet been possible. The transition to a
system and the development Moon missions to Mars is possible only when
creating a complex multilevel space infrastructure. And if the
leadership of the country this task will not be formulated as a
strategic allocation of necessary funds, the planirivat even a phased
implementation of its development is meaningless. Even the initial
phase of implementation of the lunar program will approximate estimates
in 2,5-3 times more expensive cost of the work on the International
Space Station and will require the deployment of work on the space
nuclear power, creating elektroreaktivnyh engines and more widely and
effectively their application. But this is only part of issues related
to the formation of long-term program of space exploration. And
finally, the question of manned flights to the Moon, Mars, asteroids,
to other celestial bodies solar system - is primarily a question of
human civilization as a whole. How much will be formulated correctly
allocated tasks and strategic goals in a system of universal knowledge,
so effectively will be realized science projects and programmes. What
is closer international cooperation, the closer we are to successfully
address the pressing problems of fundamental and applied.
need to identify strategic guidance in the development and use of outer
space, which certainly will have a determining influence on
accelerating economic development, must be confirmed at the state
level. Technically and ideologically to the realization of the most
complex manned projects we are ready.
(according to the report at 32 - Royal readings (the magazine "Flight").