Chertok: la nécessité d'une base lunaire

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Dans une interview à Komsomolskaya Pravda Boris Chertok se fait l'avocat de la construction d'une base lunaire permanente comme objectif central de la conquête spatiale actuelle: une idée à contre-courant de celle (convenue?) dominante partout dans le monde sauf peut-être en Chine...

Mais il parle aussi de bien d'autres choses comme de Staline, du système soviétique, de la fusée Energia...

Dommage que nous n'ayons que la traduction automatique...

Chertok: la nécessité d'une base lunaire Chertok_2

newspaper "Komsomolskaya Pravda"
№50 (24471)
Monday, April 12, 2010
Academician Boris Chertok: 'It now makes sense to fly and build bases on the Moon
Феноменальный ученый Борис Черток: родился ещё при царе, а сейчас зовёт осваивать Луну. (18 марта 2010 г.)

The phenomenal scholar, Boris Chertok: born yet when the king, and now is calling master Moon. (March 18, 2010)

Conversation with Academician I started with a question:

- Is there a sense now to fly to Mars?

Academic responded as if this question does not give him no peace one year:

- Now it makes sense to fly and build a base on the Moon! It is now vital ... As for Mars, it is sufficiently understood, to answer whether there is life on Mars or not life on Mars. This question, as you recall, was set half a century ago in the movie "Carnival Night". However, the exact answer to it has become possible only recently.
In the circumstances, (and from the standpoint of science, and, most importantly, from a policy perspective) development of the Moon as the nearest to us of the heavenly bodies is of paramount importance!

The Cold War as an engine of progress?

- I am not a "hawk" of the Cold War, however, if the Soviet Union survived and continued confrontation between us and the Americans, this value would be now evident to all, as the emerging problems facing humanity particularly acute in situations of armed confrontations. This was proved in their studies even Karl Marx. In this sense, the Cold War was the engine of progress. And if it continued - and we and the Americans would long ago have had a real-world projects for the construction of bases on the Moon ...

- But, probably, for this one to master the moon as something strange?

- The fact that the "conquest" of the Moon can provide a solution for at least three fundamental problems. The first task - a looming energy crisis, which, if occurs, will appear as a kind of doomsday. Oil, gas, coal and all that will end by the middle of the XXI century. Humanity still rely primarily on nuclear energy.
Today, humanity struggles to get a more harmless and cheaper electricity and a much larger scale ... And not by the atomic decay, and the method of synthesis! That is, we face a world problem of controlled thermonuclear reaction, which, incidentally, gives a "clean energy". However, while we did not go ...
Nevertheless, today is vital to think about the preparation of source materials. To do this, the controlled synthesis seems most appropriate use is not deuterium and tritium, ie "heavy water" (the isotopes on the basis of "heavy hydrogen"), and the use of the isotope of helium, which is called helium-3. This gas is helium-3 is much more advantageous for the controlled thermonuclear reaction, as the atomic physics can tell better than me. Helium-3 on Earth is a large deficit, but on the Moon can be, figuratively speaking, to row with a shovel.
About 20 kilograms of "lunar helium during the development of fusion can provide all kinds of energy such city as Moscow, for a year! To orient say: Americans, when performed their lunar expedition, delivered to Earth some 300 kilograms of lunar soil.
If we consider that the designer of rocket technology, Academician Glushko through their own initiative and imagination, supported by the Soviet government was able to create a launcher "Energia", able to extract basic orbit more than 100 tons of cargo, the effect of "Helium Project will be obvious, but its political significance for the State - beyond question. Glushko engine was so strong that the Soviet Union opened up the possibility of building "a lunar base." Alas, now nothing like that has no country in the world. Neither our "Union" and "Proton" or French "Area" or American "Delta", "Titans" and "Atlas" is in no way be compared with the "energy".
На переднем плане: Борис Черток и лётчик-космонавт СССР Алексей Леонов

In the foreground:
Boris Chertok and Soviet cosmonaut Alexei Leonov.

U.S. 'Close' to the moon, but ...

- And States have something like that?

- Now the United States is actively working to develop more powerful rocket, and, judging by reaching to the information we are close to the goal. True, at one time on their own foolishness buried reliable, powerful and environmentally friendly rocket Saturn 5 "(with a capacity of about 130 tons), just as we criminally destroyed once its" energy "... Today, factory equipment and materials necessary for production of "Saturn 5", no longer exists and, consequently, its production is impossible. Such reasons, and especially financial hunger is not possible to reconstruct and Soviet "energy." Thus, today, humanity must re-design the transportation system for the construction of bases on the Moon. However, U.S. President Obama recently announced "closure" of the moon. U.S. to take time off from building any habitable production base on the moon. Guide our Roskosmos is also likely to calm down, and then, most likely, the Moon will become habitable again, but thanks to the Chinese expeditions.

- Can we revive the rocket "Energy"?

- The situation for Russia aggravates the resulting collapse of the USSR the public interest. Of course, to revive the "Energy" from the standpoint of science and technology can be. But in terms of economy of Russia is absolutely unreal! And not only because it takes billions. Need another social system! And fundamentally different economy! To build such a huge scientific and industrial complex as "lunar base", it is impossible to free market principles. Free markets - for small and medium businesses, but not for the implementation of global projects! With this face, even the ultra-rich United States of America. And to achieve its goals, in 60-ies were forced to strict state planning with such responsibility, which in principle can not be in a free market, who do not care at all, if there is no profit. Free market immediately dropped any case, as soon as profits disappear. What's in space affairs is unacceptable!
So all the Soviet victory in the space were not accidental. They occurred primarily because the Soviet Union was dominated by the method of mobilization of the economy, which is to keep up, had (for the rocket and space technology) to create and maintain artificially and in the U.S.. Another thing is that the United States with their financial capabilities then could afford it ... But the question is: can they afford it to myself now? Recent doubts and administration decisions Obama made to think about it. On Russia, however, to say nothing, unless, of course, it all will go the same way as is happening now!

- But in the space breaks and China. How do they do?

- China has largely taken over the Soviet methods of mobilization of the economy, inherited the rigid central planning approaches and the tremendous responsibility since the Great Patriotic War, when Stalin for any missed deadlines and a violation of the quality of work required to give the perpetrators a tribunal ... up to the shooting. It has trained all of order, discipline and responsibility as to the community and to each other. When the war ended and began exploration of outer space, these good habits, despite the cessation of total repression, and left us in good stead. We have reached such speeds in the implementation of scientific and technological progress, that a number of main lines significantly exceeded even the United States.
Американские и российские мечты о постоянной лунной базе, возможно, воплотят китайцы.

U.S. and Russian dream of a permanent lunar base, possibly
embody the Chinese.

When we solved the problem of creation of a system, least of all think about how much to earn some money (more precisely, in general, have not thought about!). But sincerely felt for the timing and reliability of performance of assigned tasks. It was here already, so to speak, in the blood. We do not envy, as is the case now. On the contrary, all envy us. Of course, we had a salary higher than, say, the textile industry, although not higher than that of the miners. But envy us, not because of wages, but because of the fact that it is incumbent upon us such a great responsibility. When people learn that you work, where did the ship, which flew Gagarin, they said: "Oh-oh!" The credibility of scientists and skilled workers, especially those working in the aerospace and nuclear industry has been incredibly high! And we sincerely valued this, trying to keep our nation was not for us ashamed. The country was something to be proud of - she saw that the people's money down the drain, we do not throw away! Everyone wanted to get to work with us, but not because of money. Work on the scientific and technological progress if it was just as prestigious as this one appears to be a sailor prestigious yacht Abramovich ... Today, his yacht, according to the press, is about the same number would cost per year operation orbital space station "Mir", which, if it were not drowned, could serve as more than a year! Utopia for the sake of America, which, as far as I know, although this not required, but very much like to a competitor in the space she was no longer ...

And yet why do we need the moon?

- Boris Evseyevich, return to the moon, we are a little "fly off" from her ...

- This seeming digression. It is necessary then to a clearer idea of the inevitable need and potential for development of the Moon by man. Advanced development and production use of the Moon. This, for example, work on a permanent basis "lunar laboratories on the development and testing of such substances and materials, the receipt of which on Earth is impossible, but absolutely necessary. I will not list all the "lunar opportunities" to accelerate and enhance scientific and technological progress, but about one still had to say necessarily.
This construction of a permanent lunar astrophysical radio observatory for continuous and now we can say perpetual surveillance of the universe that is not only important from the standpoint of prevention of cosmic catastrophes on Earth, like the Tunguska meteorite, but also in terms of discovery of other life forms, and also in terms of search for extraterrestrial intelligence, and brothers on reason. That still seems unbelievable, with the help of the Moon, more precisely, thanks to the lunar project, "Earthlings, can lead to a completely unexpected discovery. And we are much faster than the answers to the questions: who we are, what we are, where and why we do?

NOT whether we fight for planets?

- And our civilization is really unique?

- So far we have only a unique planet in the nearest galaxy.
Americans are not spared and spent 1.5 billion dollars for the establishment of a satellite of the Earth's famous automatic space observatory is the Hubble. This Hubble during its work in orbit in the field of astronomy has made more observations than all mankind for all times of its existence. Now imagine: how would improve the results of such an observatory, which, incidentally, requires a systematic prevention, if it is constantly on duty at the scientists and experts servicing spacecraft and systems. Besides the Moon, as a natural satellite of the Earth (compared to artificial satellites), a much more solid basis for Space Studies and at the same time, as well as artificial satellites, free from the blankets the earth's atmosphere, which significantly limits the space surveillance from the Earth's surface .
Finally, we can not ignore the creation of the Moon combat military bases, the probability of construction of which is growing every year, especially given the successful tests of laser weapons for the conduct of so-called Star Wars ...

- But it means that on the agenda of the question of the right to "lunar property" and, perhaps even the establishment of a "lunar States" earthly superpowers! This is not a fantastic question, considering that even Stalin, according to the recollections of SP Korolev understood: Who will be first in space - that will be the first on the Earth! In this respect, the prospects of China and the United States today is that we, the former first, just about can be the last ...

- My view on this is. When people would be able to create on the moon bases, laser or some other beam weapons will be brought to such a degree of perfection that the range of its action of the moon from Earth would be foolish for him. And then the moon will be no failures to fire at any point of the Earth-beam energy just as today it is done at a distance of tens or hundreds of kilometers. And then really, who would be the first to own such military base, he will have a clear military advantage. Moreover, from space, you can monitor everything that happens on Earth and keep everything that happens under the constant supervision. That is why American hawks, the congressmen from the Cold War, consider: Who will own the Moon, he will rule the world! And you can be sure that if this idea really took root in their brain, they had to be abandoned. The Pentagon was and remains the Pentagon.
In these circumstances, the answer, as they say, for us! Here only doubt that we have someone to be responsible ...

Dernière édition par patchfree le Mer 21 Avr 2010 - 23:56, édité 1 fois

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Sur cette photo, on peut voir une belle brochette de cosmonautes.

Outre Alexei Leonov au premier rang, je crois reconnaitre de gauche à droite, dans l'ordre:
Youri Aksyonov, Boris Volynov, Victor Afanassiev et Georgi Gretchko.
Au troisième rang, se tient Vladimir Chatalov.
Derrière, je crois deviner Alexandre Serebrov et infin Valery Korzoun.
Tout ce beau monde fait rêver!!!

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