Futurs scaphandres russes: interview du Directeur de

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Sergei Pozdnyakov a donné une interview où il fait le point sur les futurs développements de son entreprise (qui réalise les scaphandres russes "Sokol" et "Orlan". En particulier sur les futur scaphandres "Orlan-ISS" (à apparaître d'ici 2014) qui selon lui doivent être très automatisés et permettre aux cosmonautes de se concentrer sur les tâches de la sortie extravéhiculaire et non sur la surveillance des paramètres du scaphandre. Il parle aussi des futur scaphandres "Space Armor" pour le nouveau vaisseau PTS. Enfin il précise les relations avec les chinois et les indiens.

CEO of Enterprise "Zvezda" Sergei Pozdnyakov: "Space" armor "of the future must ensure the highest possible safety and comfort of the astronauts'
:: 24.05.2010

On the development of new space suits, protection systems and life support of astronauts, as well as programs of international cooperation in this field with China and India, "Interfax-AVN said CEO and chief designer of the Scientific-Production Enterprise Zvezda Sergei Pozdnyakov.

- SS reported that the next generation space suit Orlan-ISS to work in the open space should appear in the years 2012-2014. Whether the "star" in these terms?

- Work on the spacesuit Orlan-ISS are gradually for several years. We created mock-ups of space suit, a number of its systems. We are working on an automatic temperature control. It will be some, in a figurative sense, climate control, which, depending on the load on the astronauts, on of its work, will automatically adjust the temperature inside the spacesuit. To cosmonaut himself is not distracted from the work on temperature control. We are of the opinion that the astronaut must be focused on work and not be distracted by other tasks. After all, the ideal clothing is the one that you do not notice.

Another line of work - automating the production of spacesuits spacewalk. Now it looks like this: a half hour before the opening of the hatch astronaut is in space-suit and starts in the airlock chamber test life support systems. We want to boost, pressure relief, purging is done automatically by a given algorithm, and the astronaut at this time of rest or recall work assignment. Is it possible to automate the locking of the year 2014, when the new space suits will be on the ISS instead of "Orlanov-MK, is difficult to say, because the working out and life tests of the system will take a long time.

The third innovation in the spacesuit Orlan-ISS - replacing the rubber coating on polyurethane. The current shell - the weakest point spacesuit. It limits the period of its use of five years. The use of polyurethane will increase the life of the spacesuits in orbit, given that we are not lowering them to Earth for service, as do the Americans. While difficult to say how much better life, but we expect no less than half.

- Were you able to resolve the difficulties with the purchase abroad of polyurethane for the spacesuit?

- Yes, the problem is solved. The prototype shell spacesuits Orlan-ISS made from Belgian polyurethane. What to do if in Russia it does not produce. The use of foreign raw materials and components for us is not a novelty. For example, for quite a long glass windows spacesuits are made from foreign polycarbonate. But now, Western companies are building polycarbonate production plant in Russia, so soon again become Russian glass. Maybe after some time to build plant for the production of Russian polyurethane. In any case, I do not see the disaster in the use of foreign products, since Russian counterparts are still there.

- At what stage is the design of flight spacesuit for a new spacecraft, developed by the corporation "Energy"? This will fundamentally new space "armor" or individual capsules for rescue of astronauts?

- We assume that space "armor" of the future must ensure the highest possible safety and comfort of astronauts. Conceptually, the task of ensuring the universality of reusable and new flight suits. We now have flying space suit "Sokol" sewn individually for each astronaut. This is due to the fact that in the small size of the astronaut capsule for several hours on a pose of the embryo, and thus spacesuit should not bring him any inconvenience. Given that the new ship will be more extensive, I do not rule out that the posture that the crew members during flight to the ISS will be changed, and then will be able to do three or four sizes, like clothing sizes.

By the way, ideal for all evaluations, ergonomic chair, and was, accordingly, pose Yuri Gagarin. His knees were not pressed to his chest. He sat as a dentist at the reception. This is the optimal position for blood flow: head - heart - pelvis - limbs. Such an attitude makes a long time in one position and, most importantly, carry overloads associated with starting and entering the dense layers of the Earth's atmosphere. If the volume of the vessel would then probably sell it in a new ship.

In general, the new spacesuit will be created under the traditional scheme, as soon as possible approach to skafandrostroeniyu unlikely to change. Reuse rather than disposable, as now, the use of spacesuits, will reduce the cost of launches, it's still not making new ones.

Another question is whether all members of the crew will need spacesuits. On the latest scientific and technical council, we returned to the use of individual capsules. Look in the crew planned to six people, but it is clear that the ship will operate only two of them. Others - this is the passengers. Why for them to make individual suits, which provide the mobility, if they can be put into capsules, where they sit out the dangerous part of the flight? On the other hand, in such a capsule not go to another ship. In the end it was decided to consider the idea, but not yet to begin its detailed work.

- If you change posture astronaut in the ship, lodgements will remain or be replaced in the chair?

- Our second line of work on a new ship - away from individual lodgements. Now the Soyuz astronaut cast for each individual lodgements. Moreover, the astronaut could fly into space, but after some time is flying again, but for some reason does not fit into the old tool tray - have cast a new, but it's time-consuming procedure. Not very convenient and the fact that the astronaut flying on the same ship, but may return on another. In this case the tool tray to move from ship to ship. But in terms of portability possible overload in emergency situations, not only blows, but lateral loads, lodgement - ideal. Tool tray and fixing elements help to distribute the huge load on the body and prevent injuries.

Now we have a few ideas about how to get away from otlivaniya lodgements, but leave all their advantages. First, use materials that have "memory". They allow you to receive the imprint of a body without complex operations. Secondly, there are interesting proposals relating to the evacuation. Details of these developments will not reveal.

- Sergei, now move on to international projects. In autumn 2008, two Chinese astronaut went into space. One of them was a Russian spacesuit Orlan. New orders from China for spacesuits not?

- Output of Chinese astronauts in EVA was short-lived. Figuratively speaking, just as quickly ended our cooperation with them. Chinese colleagues originally operate. They are very closed to outsiders, their useless to ask about future plans: still nothing ever told. But then again may suddenly appear. Actually, the same thing happened with the sale of "Orlanov. First came the sluggish negotiations on the sale of models spacesuits, and then the representatives of China unexpectedly arrived at the company and said they wanted to buy a regular spacesuits. We thought that the spacesuits they need for training, but Chinese colleagues explained that the spacesuits they need for real access to space. As a result, one of the Chinese astronauts walked in space in the "national" space suit, and the second - in Russian "Orlanov.

- Chinese spacesuit was a full copy of the Russian Orlan?

- In his appearance spacesuit Feytyan "is almost a copy of" Orlan ". Rather, as is the case with its functional parameters. Given that the spacewalk was short, it is difficult to say, can provide Chinese spacesuit 6 or 7 hours of battery life. It is not clear how they work heat exchange system, a supply of oxygen, a pressure inside the suits, how to provide power systems spacesuit. All this remains a mystery to us.

- Do NPP Zvezda service commitments to further suits, sold to China?

- On the issue of service suits them to us not treated, and I think the appeal will not. It features their mentality: the Chinese are trying to do everything themselves, relying on their knowledge and technology. In addition, the contract we have in front of them no commitment there. We just had to provide access to space.

- It is known that India has turned to Roskosmos to purchase the ship for flight. What is the participation of NGOs "star" in this project?

- We were invited to participate in the project according to our traditional areas - supply for Soyuz seats, lodgements, flight suits to sanitation devices, ventilation and pressurization spacesuits.

- Discussed whether the purchase by India of Russian "Orlanov" for the organization EVA?

- I do not know us on this issue is not addressed.


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